Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (2024)

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (1)

Information and Knowledge Management Using GNOWSYS.

Meena Kharatmal, Sandhya R. and Nagarjuna G.

Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education

(Tata Institute of Fundamental Research)

V. N. Purav Marg, Near Anushakti Nagar Bus Depot,

Mankhurd, Mumbai 400 088.

(meena, spk, nagarjun)@hbcse.tifr.res.in

Abstract

GNOWSYS (Gnowledge Networking and Organizing System), a

generic system for semantic computing, is a free-software developed

at Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (Tata Institute of Fun-

damental Research), and is released as an official GNU project. It is

specially made for publishing vocabularies, propositions, ontologies,

complex systems, web services, semantic computing and such infor-

mative resources including library resources on the web. It is designed

keeping in mind the recent developments in semantic computing and

knowledge representation. It is a hybrid database system with dis-

tributed, hierarchical, object-oriented, relational database support. It

can serve as an information grid, it can export data in regular seman-

tic web standards such as OWL, XTM, and its native GNOWML. It can

be used for creating digital encyclopedia, thesauri, dictionaries, glos-

saries, multi-lingual databases, for building e-learning applications,

etc. A unique feature of GNOWSYS is its potential to publish knowl-

edge at the ultimate granular level (terms and predicates of propo-

sitions). In this paper, we shall demonstrate a case study of using

GNOWSYS for library management and for knowledge management.

Keywords: Knowledge management, Information management, Digital

Library, Knowledge Organization, Semantic Web.

1

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (2)

1 Introduction

One of the ways of information communication is through the World Wide

Web. The success of World Wide Web produced lots of information. Though

World Wide Web is well-known today, often it is not utilized at its fullest.

Usually, accessing the specific information is a trenous effort on the user

as there are problems to manage the information. Inorder to overcome

this problem, and to harvest the World Wide Web, new technologies need

to be developed and GNOWSYS is one such tool. The paper introduces

GNOWSYS (Gnowledge Networking and Organizing System) to the com-

munity and demonstrate its use for managing library, information and knowl-

edge management. We shall present a case study on using GNOWSYS for

creating the web version of the library OPAC and knowledge management.

2 Semantic Web

The World Wide Web is being used today typically for seeking informa-

tion, searching for and getting in touch with other people, establishing

peer groups, reviewing of research, expanding the business, reaching out

globally, working on-line etc. In the Web technology, the main valuable

and indispensable tools are search engines without which the Web would

not have been a huge success. However, there exists serious problems as-

sociated with their use. The problems being high recall, low precision;

sensitivity of results to vocabulary which occurs due to usage of different

terminology, retrieval in the form of single Web page and to extract the in-

formation and collate it together calls for manual work[9].

The obstacles can be overcome by making the Web content into a machine-

accessible information. The solution seems to lie on developing increas-

ingly sophisticated techniques based on KR and computational linguistics,

in order to represent Web content in a form that is easily machine-processable

and to make use of intelligent techniques. This plan of revolutionizing the

Web is referred to as the Semantic Web, evolving gradually out of the ex-

isting Web.

In order to create Semantic Web advanced knowledge management sys-

tems are required. The most important aim of the Semantic Web is to orga-

2

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (3)

nize knowledge in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. The incon-

sistencies will be checked and new knowledge will be extracted which can

be managed by the automated tools. A keyword-based search will be re-

placed by query answering which can be handled over several documents

i.e. a queried or a requested knowledge will be retrieved, extracted and

presented in a human-friendly way[9]. The vision of the Semantic Web

was articulated by Tim Berners-Lee in the following way:

The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which

information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling com-

puters and people to work in cooperation. — Tim Berners-Lee,

James Hendler, Ora Lassila, The Semantic Web, Scientific Amer-

ican, May 2001

The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be

shared and reused across applications. It is an approach to integrate data

across the Web and intends to create a universal medium for information

exchange by using the semantics (meaning) in a machine-understandable

language to the Web contents. GNOWSYS is one such tool developed ap-

plying the semantic principles.

3 GNOWSYS: Gnowledge Networking and Or-

ganizing SYStem

GNOWSYS is an object oriented semantic engine developed using ZOPE

and Python. In GNOWSYS each object is provided by an unique URL. Since

it is built using a web-application server, the data can remain anywhere on

the Internet, keeping only the metadata in the systems. It is possible to

manage, publish and distribute knowledge by applying the semantic web

principles. GNOWSYS can be used for developing ontologies, databases,

electronic encyclopedias, portal sites, concept bases (knowledge bases),

expert systems etc, and in general can be used for any knowledge and

information management and knowledge representation. It is envisaged

that GNOWSYS will help to build a semantic grid for making multi-lingual

distributed concept base encompassing all knowledge of human beings,

including that of science. A portal, www.gnowledge.org[1], is being devel-

oped demonstrating the said potentials of GNOWSYS.

3

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (4)

3.1 A Hybrid Knowledge Base

GNOWSYS, is a hybrid database system with hierarchical, relational, dis-

tributed, object-oriented, database support. In a hierarchical database,

records are grouped in a logical hierarchy, connected in a branching struc-

ture. A relational database is a database constituting of set of relations in

the form of tables in which the records are in the form of attribute values.

In the object-oriented database, the contents are stored in the form of ob-

jects, with features of inheritance (the values which are assigned for parent

objects are inherited to the child objects assigned), polymorphism (it is the

ability of objects belonging to different types to respond to methods of the

same name). A distributed database is a database that is under the con-

trol of a central database management system in which storage devices are

not attached to a common CPU. It may be stored in multiple computers

located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network

of interconnected computers[6].

3.2 Architecture

The architecture of GNOWSYS, is designed keeping in mind the recent tech-

niques involved in knowledge representation (KR) area. KR in artificial in-

telligence (AI) is used to study formalisms to model human knowledge and

for problem solving. GNOWSYS can be applied for drawing concept graphs,

semantic nets, concept maps, SemNets which are currently used by several

researchers and educationists[20, 19, 11] to enhance conceptual learning

in the context of science education. The architecture of GNOWSYS is struc-

tured to accommodate different dimensions of KR such as—generality, se-

mantics, complexity, inference[12] as shown in Figure 1.

We come across a wide variety of concepts in the form of particulars or

generals or even abstract. Inorder to understand the wide variety of con-

cepts in our discourse it is essential to organize the concepts based on their

order of generality. Along the generality dimension of GNOWSYS, the three

different levels of generality such as tokens (particulars), types (generals),

and metatypes (types of types), can be organized. For example, it is pos-

sible to organize knowledge of the taxonomical classification system along

the generality dimension. In the taxonomical knowledge base, there exists

concepts such as—mammals, dogs, cats, Fido, Tom, humans, James Wat-

son, etc. The generality dimension is applied when organizing the above

4

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (5)

Figure 1: A diagram representing the architecture of GNOWSYS.

knowledge base—Fido, Tom, James Watson are the particulars and hence

organized in the token layer; dogs, cats, humans are generals and hence

are organized in the type layer; and taxonomical concept, person concept

are organized in the metatype layer.

The semantics and consistency check is carried out along the seman-

tic dimension of GNOWSYS. To start with, in the first layer all kinds of

propositions are allowed to store without any semantic constraints. This

is observed in the case of novices when they start with representing their

knowledge in idiosyncratic way without following any constraints or prin-

ciples. The propositions are stored in the form of well formed formulae

(WFF). In the second layer, the WFFs can be combined with the semantic

constraints, logical connectives, modalities, propositional attitudes, quanti-

5

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (6)

fiers etc. The consistency is implicit at this layer and hence it is referred as

implicit structured system (ISS). In the third layer, the validity constraints

can be imposed explicitly and therefore gives rise to explicit consistent sys-

tem (ECS) which is quite similar to the experts’ knowledge system. The

semantic dimension allows to represent novice’s and expert’s knowledge

(alongwith the transformation), with the semantic constraints and validity.

The semantic dimension is implicit throughout the entire knowledge base

built using GNOWSYS, and hence it is not represented in the figure.

The basic components of a knowledge base are ObjectType (OT), Ob-

ject (O), RelationType (RT), Relation (R), MetaType (MT), EventType (ET),

Event (E), FlowType (FT), Flow (F). These components help to store the

terms, propositions and procedures. The complexity dimension helps to

generate complex compositions using the structure groups consisting of

ProcessType (PT), Process (P), StructureType (ST), Structure (S), Encapsu-

lated Class, Programs and ProgramType.

Using the inference dimension of GNOWSYS, the epistemic values such

as validity and truth can be checked. At present, there does not exist any

in-built module supporting for inferences but with developing an interface

between the GNOWSYS and any existing inference engines, it is possible to

deduce consequences using deductive inference.

3.3 Underlying Technology

GNOWSYS is developed as a product of ZOPE, by extending ZOPE classes

and using Python programming language. ZOPE (Zee Object Publishing

Environment)[7] is a free (as in freedom) web application server for build-

ing content management systems, intranets, portals, and custom applica-

tions. ZOPE allows to store content and custom data, dynamic HTML tem-

plates, scripts, catalogue, and connections to relational databases. It fea-

tures a strong through-the-web development model, allowing to update the

website from anywhere in the world alongwith powerful integrated secu-

rity model. It is possible for connecting not only to ZOPE’s object database,

but also with relational database allowing for strong data integrity. It runs

on the GNU/LINUX, UNIX-based platforms as well as Windows NT. It can

be used with most popular web servers or its own built in web server.

6

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (7)

ZOPE is designed for Web object as well as Web development model. It

is written using Python, an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented pro-

gramming language with clear syntax and dynamic semantics. Python[4]

emphasizes readability due to its clear syntax and therefore is easy to main-

tain. GNOWSYS is interoperable, i.e. it works on all the known operating

systems.

3.4 Semantic Computing

As presented above, GNOWSYS has procedural objects, alongwith declar-

ative objects, such as function, program, and class. GNOWSYS is unique

in this feature that it can store and activate (executable) objects. Using

this feature, it is possible to design applications without writing programs

in any programming language: i.e., specifying the semantics of a program

and mapping the elements of the program to the surrogates of procedures

is sufficient for GNOWSYS to test the application design. This forms the

foundation for semantic computing using GNOWSYS. This feature enables

anyone, even those who do not have computer science or programming

background, to develop a knowledge base provided they can grasp the logic

of the domain.

4 Dynaminc Information Management Using GNOWSYS

In the present scenario, with the help of available library software pack-

ages, it is possible to organize the library resources. But this is not enough,

because the resources are not always books and journals, there is also more

information available on the internet. If we want to fully exploit or utilize

the information available globally, we need to go beyond just organizing the

library collection to information and knowledge management. The existing

softwares do not meet the above requirements, and hence GNOWSYS plays

a major role in managing all kinds of digital resources alongwith traditional

resources. Using GNOWSYS it is possible to integrate the functionalities of

information management such as managing the documents and also for

planning and coordination.

Information management involves anything from library management,

to office management, or any types of record management. Due to bud-

7

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (8)

get constraints, most organizations find difficult to implement IT for their

services including libraries. It is important for managing databases, office

resources, providing online access over the internet. To cater to all these

requirements, usually there are special applications for each purpose. A

generic information management system like GNOWSYS can serve all the

requirements in the office such as accounting, creating inventories, manag-

ing leave records, etc., and also for replacing the specialized software.

The reader would think that all the above requirements can be achieved

using any database, and would also like to know what is so special about

GNOWSYS. We would like to emphasize that GNOWSYS is especially de-

veloped for managing dynamic knowledge base systems. It is made to

model the cognitive development (or the development of human knowl-

edge). For example, in a human’s ontogeny (lifetime), knowledge is ac-

quired by changes in conceptual schemes, and it gets developed through

various processes. It is very essential to capture these changing conceptual

schemes as they get developed. KR is one such alternative for modeling

human knowledge, and GNOWSYS which is based on KR principles, allows

for representing various conceptual schemes in one’s ontogeny or learn-

ing course. GNOWSYS allows one to begin representing the knowledge

starting from loosely formed structures which can at the same time have

contradictory beliefs, semantic inconsistencies in an implicit form and over

a period of time transforming the knowledge into an explicit and consis-

tent form. This is what we assume in the context of learning. In this way

GNOWSYS can capture the development of human knowledge because it

always preserves the earlier knowledge structure, a feature which is not

found in the conventional database management system (DBMS) due to

their rigid structures or schemes.

In the conventional DBMS, in order to create database the scheme should

be frozen before adding the data. However this does not allow to incorpo-

rate changes in the existing schemes, and one ends up in creating different

schemes as and when required. In this way the schemes in DBMS are rigid.

On the contrary, GNOWSYS is flexible because its schemes can change ac-

cording to the input and the requirements. The schemes in GNOWSYS are

generated as they get developed while we input the data. GNOWSYS helps

to represent developing systems or changes.

8

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (9)

5 Library Management Using GNOWSYS

The reader may have realized that GNOWSYS can be used to create wide

variety of applications related to information management. In this section

our focus is to present a case study on using GNOWSYS for efficient li-

brary management system. Based on the three layer architecture of the

GNOWSYS, we organized the metadata of the library. Metadata is data

that describes data or content objects. The metadata was categorized in

the form of ObjectType, Object, AttributeType, Attribute, RelationType, Re-

lation. Objects are classified according to subclass/superclass relation, and

also instantiation relation (class-instance). Relations are assigned between

objects and their classes (called ObjectTypes or Metatypes). The library’s

metadata includes ISBN, author, editor, publisher, author mark, pages, sub-

ject, class number, accession number, etc. The ObjectType is used for clas-

sification. The subject is classified as ObjectType since it is a class. The

unique feature of a book or a journal for example, accession number or

periodical number are assigned as ID, and those such as ISBN, ISSN, are

classified as AttributeType which can be assigned values. Every physically

existing material i.e. each book or each journal is classified as an Object.

The organization of the library metadata is shown in figure 2.

When creating entries for each book or each journal, one has to select

its parent ObjectType which is nothing but the subject to which it belongs.

Once the object is created, then values are to be assigned for each attribute

of the book.

5.1 Library on the World Wide Web

The Centre’s library database is currently managing the database of around

seventeen thousand resources on the existing proprietary software. Using

GNOWSYS, this library database was launched on the World Wide Web.

Since GNOWSYS is a web-application server, incidentally also developed

in-house, the library database can be uploaded on the internet. Inorder to

create a web version of the library collection, we worked on the data ex-

change model. First the metadata of library information science (LIS) was

translated into GNOWSYS model. The database (.dbf) file of the existing

software was first opened in a spreadsheet and saved as tab delimited text

file. Using Python, a script was written to read each and every field of the

9

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (10)

Figure 2: The organization of the library metadata.

database tables which was created using previous database management

system. After the successful generation of the script, each and every field

of the database tables was fully converted into objects in GNOWSYS. Once

the database was successfully imported the display on GNOWSYS was de-

signed in the user-friendly way alongwith the two standard formats viz.,

MARC and CARD. One of the most widely used feature in the library is to

query for the collection. The search script enables one to generate results

of query based on author, editor, title, publisher, ISBN and keywords. Since

both data and metadata of objects can be stored, indexed in a catalogue it

enables for a faster query.

10

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (11)

5.2 Data Exchange Using GNOWSYS

GNOWSYS supports data exchange in several forms. It can accept any

import filter as long as the database exports into text or XML (eXtensible

Mark-up Language). XML, a sub-set of earlier mark-up language called the

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), is an open standard used

for defining, validating as storing structured data objects by expressing

them as tagged text in Unicode. The data-exchange modules of GNOWSYS

will support various standard knowledge representation schemes such as

CL (common logic), PetriNets, KIF (knowledge interchange format), CG

(concept graphs), OWL (web ontology language), XTM (XML Topic Maps),

etc.

5.3 Managing User Profile

A staff user profile is created by importing the user’s database. This facil-

itates the circulation as well providing selective dissemination of informa-

tion (SDI), current awareness services (CAS). This allows each user (with

secured login ID and password) to recommend or reserve the books on-

line, or request for any other information. It is also possible to view the

table of contents, generate bibliographical entries for citations.

5.4 Selective Dissemination of Information

Since an user profile already exists, it is much easy to create relations be-

tween the areas of interest of the users with that of the collection (i.e. key-

words). Using GNOWSYS, it is possible to establish linkages or relations

between the users and new arrivals in the library. Whenever there is a new

arrival in the library, users are alerted. It can generate online request forms

regarding abstract, review, etc. Current awareness in the form of new ar-

rivals, contents of current journals, clippings of newspaper articles can be

disemminated to the users using the user profile.

5.5 Digital Libraries

In the IT age, there is a growing demand for the latest information. The dig-

itization of the library involves “series of activities that brings together col-

lections, services, and people in support of the full life cycle of creation, dis-

11

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (12)

semination, use, and preservation of data, information, and knowledge”[18].

The main advantages of a digital library are that the digitized information

can be accessed from anywhere in the world, it has fast access, the storage,

management and retrieval of information is precise and easy, and the digi-

tized information can be easily converted into a hard copy. The data of the

digitized information is transmitted in its exact form (images, video, au-

dio, text, etc.). GNOWSYS can be used for digital document management

system (DMS), for any large organization or for personal use. It allows for

creation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of documents in electronic

format.

World Wide Web made possible several digital libraries around the world

for example, Wikipedia, Wordnet, OpenCyc, Netscape’s Open Directory

which has a storage of digital data. Using the metadata of GNOWSYS,

it is possible to create relations with these digital libraries and produce a

structured and organized knowledge base.

6 Content Management Using GNOWSYS

Content Management (CM) is a set of processes and technologies which

can create, update, publish, translate, archive, and retire. To start with,

an instance of digital content is created by authors, and later the content

is edited (by editors), and on approval of the content it is ready for pub-

lication. The next generation of content management is best referred to

as semantic content management, where the content carries meaning that

is expressed by metadata according to a semantic structure based on open

standards[22]. The semantic content management is about managing con-

tent objects based on their properties.

7 Knowledge Management Using GNOWSYS

GNOWSYS is being used as a tool for knowledge management in science

education. At present, there exists wide variety of tools for knowledge

representation (KR), of which the most widely used are Concept Maps[20,

19], SemNet[11], semantic network, concept circle diagrams[19], concept

graphs[23]. The graphs generated from these KR tools are usually stored

12

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (13)

separately thus making the knowledge base inaccessible for the users across

the network. However, in the design of GNOWSYS, the graphs generated

by various applications can be shared and published by the system through

XML based representations schemes.

GNOWSYS is being used in research on “Knowledge Organization in Bi-

ology Education”. A knowledge base of concepts and semantic relations

is being developed using GNOWSYS[15]. Our research study is to char-

acterize and organize knowledge based on KR using the grammar of sci-

entific knowledge. The research methodology of organizing knowledge is

based on KR approach which involves to apply logical principles. Using

GNOWSYS, we have created a knowledge base of some biological terms

wherein the knowledge is classified and organized into MetaType, Object-

Type, RelationType, Relation, Objects, Attributes. Some of the objectives

of our research are—to organize concepts based on their cognitive func-

tion (role); assign valid and authentic semantic relations (knowledge or-

ganizers) to the concepts; to compare and restructure (reorganize) the

novice’s knowledge structure with that of an experts knowledge structure.

Using GNOWSYS, graphical representations such as concept maps, concept

graphs can be generated based on the knowledge base. The knowledge or-

ganizers help eliminate ambiguity, maintain parsimony and apply precision

to the scientific body of knowledge[16].

The figure 3 shows a principled concept map on organic molecules gen-

erated from our knowledge base. It depicts the knowledge organizers i.e.

relation types which help to represent some of the knowledge about organic

molecules.

8 Conclusion

GNOWSYS, a web application server, is developed in-house and is released

an an official GNU project. It is a free (as in freedom) software i.e. it

gives freedom to run the program, study the program and adapt or im-

prove/change the program, and also to redistribute the program to the

community.

The objective of the paper is limited to introducing GNOWSYS to in-

formation scientists. We have shown that GNOWSYS can be used in the

13

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (14)

Figure 3: Knowledge organizers for understanding organic molecules.

area of information and knowledge management for content management,

creating digital documents, etc.

Acknowledgements: We wish to thank Bipin Apandkar and Prasanta Baruah

for providing the programming support for library management and Shrikant

Gaikwad for providing the technical support.

References

[1] Gnowledge portal site. Website. http://www.gnowledge.org.

14

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (15)

[2] Hbcse library website using gnowsys. Website.

http://www.hbcse.tifr.res.in:9673/library/hbcse-library/.

[3] A multilingual thesaurus. Website.

http://www.hbcse.gnowledge.org/wordnetbth/.

[4] Python. Website. http://www.python.org.

[5] Website of homi bhabha centre for science education. Website.

http://www.hbcse.tifr.res.in/.

[6] Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Website.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database systems.

[7] Zope (zee object publishing environment). Website.

http://www.zope.org.

[8] GNOWSYS: Gnowledge networking and organizing system. Website,

2005. http://www.gnu.org/software/gnowsys/.

[9] Grigoris Antoniou and Frank van Harmelen. A Semantic Web Primer,

chapter The Semantic Web Vision, pages 1–21. The MIT Press, Cam-

bridge, 2004.

[10] K.S. Raghavan S.B. Ghosh N.R. Satyanarayana S.K. Savanur Muttayya

Koganuramath T.J. Mathew D. Kamalavijayan, Harsha Parekh, editor.

International Conference on Information Management in a Knowledge

Society, volume I & II, Mumbai, February 2005. Indian Association of

Special Libraries and Information Centres, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd.,

New Delhi.

[11] Kathleen Fisher, James Wandersee, and David Moody. Mapping Biol-

ogy Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2000.

[12] Nagarjuna G. GNOWSYS: A system for semantic computing. Website,

2005. http://www.gnu.org/software/gnowsys/gnowsys files/cpv2/.

[13] Ramesh C. Gaur. Re-engineering Library and Informational Services:

Process, People & Technology. Allied Publishers Private Limited, Mum-

bai, 2003.

15

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (16)

[14] D. Kamalavijayan. Information and Knowledge Management. Macmil-

lan India Ltd., Delhi, 2005.

[15] Meena Kharatmal and Nagarjuna G. Knowledge or-

ganization of biology education. Website, 2004.

http://zope.hbcse.tifr.res.in:9673/Meena/Biology/.

[16] Meena Kharatmal and Nagarjuna G. Understanding science through

knowledge organizers: An introduction. In An International

Conference to Review Research on Science, Technology and Mathe-

matics Education, Goa, India, December 2005. HBCSE, HBCSE.

http://www.hbcse.tifr.res.in/episteme/themes/meena-knowledge-

organizers.

[17] Doug Lenat. The cyc knowledge server. Website, 2005.

http://www.cyc.com/cyc/technology/.

[18] Gail McMillan. Digital libraries support distributed education. Web-

site, 1999. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlevents/mcmillan99.pdf.

[19] Joel Mintzes, James Wandersee, and Joseph Novak, editors. Teaching

Science for Understanding — A Human Consctructivist View. Academic

Press, USA, 1998.

[20] Joseph Novak and D. Bob Gowin. Learning How to Learn. Cambridge

University Press, UK, 1984.

[21] National Library of Medicine. Unified medical language system

(umls). Website, 2005. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/.

[22] Profium White Paper. Technical impact of seman-

tic on content management. Website, October 2004.

http://www.profium.com/library/Profium technical white paper.pdf.

[23] John Sowa. Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical and

Computational Foundations. Brooks/Cole, USA, 2003.

[24] Morton Winston, Roger Chaffin, and Douglas Herrman. A taxonomy

of part-whole relations. Cognitive Science, 11:417–444, 1987.

16

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (17)

Screen Shots

Screen shot 1: Adding an entry in library management system using

GNOWSYS.

17

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (18)

Screen Shot 2: Display of book using GNOWSYS.

18

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (19)

Screen Shot 3: Display of book in CARD format using GNOWSYS.

19

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (20)

Screen Shot 4: Display of query for book based on title.

20

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (21)

Screen Shot 5: Display of query for book based on author/editor.

21

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (22)

Screen Shot 6: Display of the query for journal.

22

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (23)

Screen Shot 7: Display of the user profile.

23

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (24)

Title: Information and Knowledge Management Using GNOWSYS.

Authors: Meena Kharatmal, Sandhya R. and Nagarjuna G.

Affiliation: Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education

(Tata Institute of Fundamental Research)

Abstract:

GNOWSYS, a generic system for semantic computing, is a free-software

developed at Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (Tata Institute of

Fundamental Research), and is released as an official GNU project. It is

specially made for publishing vocabularies, propositions, ontologies, com-

plex systems, web services, semantic computing and such informative re-

sources including library resources on the web. It is designed keeping in

mind the recent developments in semantic computing and knowledge rep-

resentation. It is a hybrid database system with distributed, hierarchical,

object-oriented, relational database support. It can serve as an information

grid, it can export data in regular semantic web standards such as OWL,

XTM, and its native GNOWML. It can be used for creating digital encyclope-

dia, thesauri, dictionaries, glossaries, multi-lingual databases, for building

e-learning applications, etc. A unique feature of GNOWSYS is its potential

to publish knowledge at the ultimate granular level (terms and predicates

of propositions). In this paper, we shall demonstrate a case study of using

GNOWSYS for library management and knowledge management.

Mailing Address: Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education

V. N. Purav Marg, Near Anushakti Nagar Bus Depot,

Mankhurd, Mumbai 400088.

Telephone Number: 022-25555242 / 25554712

Fax Number: 022-25566803

Email Address: [emailprotected]

24

Information and Knowledge Management Using - Okeanos - [PDF Document] (2024)

References

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Greg Kuvalis

Last Updated:

Views: 5674

Rating: 4.4 / 5 (55 voted)

Reviews: 86% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Greg Kuvalis

Birthday: 1996-12-20

Address: 53157 Trantow Inlet, Townemouth, FL 92564-0267

Phone: +68218650356656

Job: IT Representative

Hobby: Knitting, Amateur radio, Skiing, Running, Mountain biking, Slacklining, Electronics

Introduction: My name is Greg Kuvalis, I am a witty, spotless, beautiful, charming, delightful, thankful, beautiful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.