AP Euro Unit 9 Progress Check: MCQ Flashcards | Knowt (2024)

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The following question refers to the topic of the Cold War and contemporary Europe.

Which of the following best explains the circ*mstances in which Western Europe began efforts to create the transnational union that would eventually become the European Union?

A) It was created in response to Soviet efforts to unite Eastern Europe under a single economic system.
B) It was an attempt to prevent a return to the political and economic instability that had characterized the first half of the twentieth century.
C) It was directly inspired by efforts in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to create a unified European state.
D) It was envisioned as a way for European countries to maintain control of their overseas empires.

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AP Euro Unit 9 Progress Check: MCQ Flashcards | Knowt (3)

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The following question refers to the topic of the Cold War and contemporary Europe.

Which of the following best explains the circ*mstances in which Western Europe began efforts to create the transnational union that would eventually become the European Union?

A) It was created in response to Soviet efforts to unite Eastern Europe under a single economic system.
B) It was an attempt to prevent a return to the political and economic instability that had characterized the first half of the twentieth century.
C) It was directly inspired by efforts in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to create a unified European state.
D) It was envisioned as a way for European countries to maintain control of their overseas empires.

B

The first half of the twentieth century saw Europe enter two World Wars. One of the main catalysts to both wars was extreme nationalism, which was used to justify total warfare and atrocities against civilian populations. European leaders hoped that the creation of a transnational union would allow each country to retain its national identity and culture while gaining the benefit of stronger economic and political ties to other European countries.

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Which of the following best explains the situation that led to the emergence of a divided Europe during the Cold War?

A) Despite their alliance to defeat Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union and the Western Allies' ideological differences led to political and economic divisions based on territory occupied at the end of the Second World War.
B) The mass migration of refugees at the end of the Second World War, primarily ethnic Germans who were fleeing advancing Soviet armies and fearful of retribution in countries formerly occupied by the Nazis, transformed the ethnic makeup of Eastern and Western Europe.
C) In the aftermath of the Second World War, the United States began an effort to rebuild Western Europe that became known as the Marshall Plan, which contributed to rapid modernization and rising standards of living in the West.

A

While the liberal democracies of Great Britain and the United States and the communist Soviet Union formed an alliance to defeat Nazi Germany in the Second World War, ideological differences and mutual suspicions quickly led to a postwar period of tension and confrontation known as the Cold War. The Soviet Union established satellite regimes in Eastern Europe, while the United States formed military alliances and fostered economic redevelopment in Western Europe. Each side maintained a strong military directed at the other, and while open war was avoided, both sides sought military and diplomatic advantages. The Cold War persisted until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s.

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Which of the following best explains how European thought and culture was marked by intensified anxiety and heightened subjectivity after the Second World War?

A) The competing economic systems of capitalism and communism heightened intellectual divisions in Europe.
B) The influx of American popular culture and technology led to arguments over the cultural and moral implications of its influence on Europe.
C) The Holocaust and the development of nuclear weapons undermined faith in science and certainties about the superiority of European culture.
D) The rise of consumer culture undermined the traditional influence of artists and philosophers as the definers of cultural values in Europe.

C

With the details of the Holocaust having come to light, many Germans and other Europeans had a sense of guilt about the atrocities committed during the Second World War. In addition, nuclear weapons created a sense of fatalism among many Europeans who feared the end of society through the use of such weapons. For many people, the events of the war and the possibility of nuclear destruction heightened distrust of established institutions and ideologies.

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The author's report (Hamilton Fish, American journalist visiting Europe, July 1947) on conditions in Europe is best explained by which of the following developments of the time?

A) The outbreak of the Cold War between the Soviets and Americans
B) The impact of wartime destruction and economic dislocations
C) The lingering effects of the Great Depression on Western Europe
D) The increased taxation required to pay for the expanded postwar welfare state in Western Europe

B

Fish's report, written only two years after the end of hostilities in Europe, shows the continuing effects of both the destruction caused by the war and the economic dislocations caused by the diversion of much of Europe's economy to military production and the difficulty of postwar economic readjustment.

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Which of the following developments of the time best explains the United States attempt to remediate the conditions described in the passage (Hamilton Fish, American journalist visiting Europe, July 1947)?

A) The trials of accused Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg
B) The growth of movements pushing for decolonization
C) The increasing fears of communist influence in Western Europe
D) The desire to withdraw American soldiers from Europe

C

This article by Fish describes deficiencies in European economies. United States leaders feared that, if Western European economies did not recover from the effects of the war, these countries might come under Soviet influence. As a result, the United States decided to offer aid under the Marshall Plan. The Plan was highly successful in helping the economies of Western Europe recover.

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The focus on material goods in Fish's analysis (Hamilton Fish, American journalist visiting Europe, July 1947) of conditions in Europe is best explained by which of the following developments?

A) The negotiations then underway for creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in Western Europe
B) The creation of the mutual defense alliance in Western Europe known as NATO
C) The increasing criticism of Western social values by European intellectuals and artists
D) The growing influence of consumerism on American and European society

D

The production and marketing of consumer goods had become a mainstay of the United States economy by the postwar period and continues to be important today. Consumerism was also increasingly important in Europe. Fish's focus on the lack of consumer goods reflects their importance as a barometer of economic well-being.

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Propaganda poster of the French Communist party, circa 1950
The text reads: "American occupation is war" and "Let us free France from the Atlantic pact!"

The poster was most directly a reaction to which of the following developments?

A) The Allied invasion of France during the Second World War
B) American support for French decolonization movements
C) The American-led United Nations intervention in the Korean War
D) American troops remaining in Western Europe as part of NATO commitments

D

The poster criticizes the United States by saying that the presence of American troops during this time period is equivalent to war. After the creation of NATO in 1949, the United States stationed troops in Western Europe to act as a first response to any possible attacks by the Soviet Union.

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Propaganda poster of the French Communist party, circa 1950
The text reads: "American occupation is war" and "Let us free France from the Atlantic pact!"

The stance of the French Communist party in the propaganda poster is best explained by

A) fears created by the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe
B) Soviet efforts to undermine Western governments during the Cold War
C) Soviet aid to rebels in French Algeria and Indochina
D) French fears of a reunited Germany

B

The Soviet government actively sought to promote political parties and movements in Western Europe that would be more favorable to its interests. The formation of NATO was seen as threat by the Soviet Union and the Soviet government encouraged resistance to NATO by ideologically sympathetic parties like the French Communist Party.

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Propaganda poster of the French Communist party, circa 1950
The text reads: "American occupation is war" and "Let us free France from the Atlantic pact!"

The fears the poster was intended to manipulate were largely in response to which of the following developments?

A) The increasing American cultural influence in Europe after the Second World War
B) The possibility that the Cold War could lead to a larger, potentially nuclear, conflict
C) The devastation inflicted by Allied air raids on Germany during the Second World War
D) The Soviet blockade of Allied-occupied West Berlin and subsequent aid airlift

B

The poster depicts a possibility of the United States and the Soviet Union going to war and France being destroyed in the process. By the time the poster was produced, both the United States and the Soviet Union had developed nuclear weapons, and the United States had used them to destroy two Japanese cities at the end of the Second World War. People in France as well as other countries had a growing fear that any military confrontation between the two superpowers could become a nuclear war.

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The following question refers to the topic of two emerging superpowers.

Which of the following best explains the changed United States role in European affairs after the Second World War?

A) The American desire to counter the perceived communist threat by binding Western Europe in trade systems and military alliances
B) The American concern over the potential revival of Nazi, fascist, and other right-wing movements
C) The American desire to see Western Europe grant independence to colonies that had aided in the war effort against Nazi Germany and Japan
D) The American fear of a postwar economic collapse and a return to the economic conditions of the Great Depression

A

At the end of the Second World War, The United States chose to remain engaged in Western Europe (in contrast to its policy after the First World War). United States leaders were primarily motivated by fear that the Soviet Union would encourage the expansion of communism in Europe and elsewhere. To counteract the perceived threat of Soviet expansion the United States began implementing military alliances, such as NATO, and economic aid programs, such as the Marshall Plan, to support Western European governments.

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The following question refers to the topic of two emerging superpowers.

Which of the following best explains the significance of Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policies in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe?

A) They heightened nuclear tensions with the Western powers during such events as the Cuban missile crisis.
B) They failed to meet their goals of reform, leading to uprisings against communist authorities such as the Hungarian revolt.
C) They gave rise to new nationalist sentiment in Eastern Europe, such as the movements that led to the breakups of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
D) They brought Eastern Europe under Soviet economic and political control through mechanisms such as COMECON and the Warsaw Pact.

B

After gaining power, Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev attempted to undo some of the excesses of Stalin's regime. His reforms, however, were limited and did not adequately address the main political and economic weaknesses of the Soviet system. However, Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policies led others to challenge the legitimacy of Soviet rule. The Hungarian revolt of 1956 was one of several rebellions by Eastern Bloc countries seeking more control over their economic and foreign policies.

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The following question refers to the topic of two emerging superpowers.

Which of the following best explains why the Soviet bloc experienced significant periods of unrest during the Cold War?

A) Soviet economic production goals led to specialized production among bloc members, limiting economic development.
B) Catholic and other Christian religious leaders frequently spoke out against communist policies, leading to increasing religious zeal.
C) Soviet central planning boosted industrial production, but limited individual freedoms and failed to provide the consumer goods present in the West.
D) Rival communist thinkers, such as Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, accused the Soviets of failing to adhere to the principles of Marxism.

C

Soviet economic planning favored the production of industrial goods over consumer goods and also tended to devalue the service sector of the economy. In addition, the Soviet government rigorously policed dissent and suppressed individual liberties. The repression, combined with the increasing failure to deliver material improvements equal to those created by free-market economies of the West, led to increasing discontent with communist rule and were a major factor in its ultimate collapse.

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The following question refers to the topic of postwar nationalism, ethnic conflict, and atrocities.

Which of the following best explains why nationalist and ethnic conflict continued in Europe after the Second World War?

A) The lowering of tariffs and trade barriers created a backlash among workers displaced by economic changes resulting from European integration.
B) The border shifts after the First and Second World Wars left many minority populations without national homelands or nation-states.
C) The United States sought to fully enforce the principle of national self-determination in Europe.
D) The Cold War heightened the risk of another general European war, emboldening ethnic minorities to leverage the superpower tensions to gain independence.

B

Although the Second World War was in part the result of extreme nationalism, the conflict did not discredit nationalistic beliefs. In addition, although the political settlements of the First and Second World Wars left some ethnic groups with clearly defined homelands, others were grouped together in multiethnic states that experienced ethnic tensions. For all these reasons, nationalism continued to be a source of conflict after the Second World War.

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The following question refers to the topic of postwar nationalism, ethnic conflict, and atrocities.

Which of the following best explains why the collapse of the Soviet Union triggered ethnic conflicts in Eastern Europe?

A) The expansion of NATO and the European Union (EU) into eastern Europe was seen as a threat by the new Russian state.
B) The economic policies of communist regimes stressed industrial production over the production of consumer goods.
C) The collapse of the communist bloc led to the reunification of Germany despite economic disparities between the eastern and western regions.
D) The absence of communist oppression allowed for the revival of nationalist sentiments and rivalries that had developed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

D

Under Soviet domination, ethnic tensions that had developed earlier within and among eastern European countries were generally suppressed. The communist government of the multiethnic state of Yugoslavia also generally suppressed ethnic tensions during the Cold War. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, nationalist movements gained legitimacy throughout eastern Europe. The breakup of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia and the independence of the Baltic states resulted from the upsurge in nationalism after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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The following question refers to the topic of postwar nationalism, ethnic conflict, and atrocities.

In which of the following ways did the civil war in Yugoslavia during the 1990s represent a significant change in European international relations?

A) The conflict was the result of ethnic and religious tensions.
B) The conflict resulted in mass migration and ethnic cleansing.
C) The conflict triggered a military intervention by NATO despite Russian objections.
D) The United Nations attempted to end the conflict through negotiation.

C

NATO eventually intervened in the civil war because of the atrocities committed during the conflict by the Serbian military. Russia had taken a pro-Serbian stance but was unable to block NATO action. This marked a significant change from the Cold War, when the threat of military confrontation with the Soviet Union prevented NATO interventions in eastern Europe.

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Image 1: Gérald Bloncourt, French, "[the French national health and pensions organization]", May 1980
The banner reads: "Social Security in danger." "The right and access to health for all is threatened." Fight alongside the CGT."

Image 2: Neil Libbert, British, "DHSS [Department of Health and Social Security] Benefit Office, Tavistock Place," London, 1987

The images are historically significant because they indicate the existence of tensions regarding the European welfare state resulting from

A) the arms buildup of the Cold War that put pressure on Western European state budgets and led to civic unrest
B) the collapse of communism and the increase in ethnic tensions in former communist countries
C) high taxation and the economic slowdown associated with deindustrialization
D) an increase in immigration to Europe from former colonies that led to protests and the rise of new right-wing political gr

C

In the postwar period most European governments adopted welfare-state policies aimed at protecting their citizens. Welfare-state protections included unemployment insurance, medical care, and old-age pensions. These programs were increasingly expensive, and the economic downturn in the 1970s associated with deindustrialization made them less affordable. The French photograph shows protests against proposed cuts to French social security, and the British photograph documents the conditions of people dependent on welfare programs.

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Image 1: Gérald Bloncourt, French photographer, "Demonstration in Paris for Sécurité Sociale [the French national health and pensions organization], May 1980.
The banner reads: "Social Security in danger." "The right and access to health for all is threatened." Fight alongside the CGT." The CGT was a confederation of French trade unions.

Which of the following best explains the motivation of the group protesting in image 1 ?

A) Fear of communist subversion caused Western European governments to crack down on labor unions.
B) Working- and middle-class Western Europeans increasingly relied on government pension and health-care benefits.
C) A growing segment of Western European society rejected the cradle-to-grave model of the welfare state and called for free-market reforms.
D) Students and other critics of middle-class social values increasingly took to the streets to protest, as in the student rebell

B

Image 1 depicts protests against proposed cuts to the social security program in France. Welfare-state protections, such as those offered by France, attempted to provide cradle-to-grave security for citizens and proved increasingly necessary for all but the wealthiest members of society. Thus, proposals to cut these benefits were often met with protests by a broad cross-section of the citizenry.

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Neil Libbert, British photographer, "DHSS [Department of Health and Social Security] Benefit Office, Tavistock Place," London, 1987

Which of the following best explains the photographer's choice of composition and subject in image 2 ?

A) He wished to show the benefits of Britain's national health-care system to audiences that were increasingly critical of it.
B) He hoped to demonstrate the multiethnic character of Britain to audiences who were fearful of immigration from former colonies.
C) He wanted to show the despair and poor conditions of the people who relied on the welfare state.
D) He desired to support Thatcher's Conservative government, which promised to cut welfare benefits.

C

The photographer that created image 2 likely wished to depict the despair and poor conditions of people who relied on welfare-state programs. The downcast expressions and general bleakness of the environment indicate the photographer's likely intent.

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Which of the following would best support the author's claim about the distinctions between eastern and western Europe in the second paragraph (David Welch, historian, Modern European History: 1871 to 2000, revised edition published in 2009)?

A) The withdrawal of most of the American and Soviet troops from Germany at the end of the Cold War
B) The admission of Poland and other former communist states into the European Union
C) The separation of the Baltic States and Ukraine from Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union
D) The creation of a unified currency, the euro, for members of the European Union

B

In the second paragraph, Welch claims that eastern Europe ceased to exist as a separate socioeconomic and geographic entity after the collapse of communism in Europe. The admission of Poland and other former communist states into the European Union, a transnational organization that had been limited to countries in western and southern Europe, provides a clear example supporting Welch's claim.

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Which of the following would most directly support the author's argument in the third paragraph (David Welch, historian, Modern European History: 1871 to 2000, revised edition published in 2009)?

A) The civil war in Yugoslavia that led to the breakup of that country
B) The peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia into two separate countries, both of which joined the European Union
C) The failure of Great Britain and Norway to join the currency union of the European Union
D) The financial crisis in Greece and Spain that required bailouts from German and other European banks

A

In the third paragraph, Welch argues that the collapse of communism led to the re-emergence of tensions that had existed before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. One of the more significant of these tensions was the conflict among various ethnic groups in the Balkans. The outbreak of civil war in Yugoslavia after the collapse of the Soviet Union represents a clear example of the re-emergence of a pre-1914 conflict.

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Which of the following would best support the author's claim at the end of the first paragraph regarding the German Question (David Welch, historian, Modern European History: 1871 to 2000, revised edition published in 2009)?

A) The divisions of Germany and Berlin into eastern and western zones at the end of the Second World War
B) The expulsion of ethnic Germans from most of Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War
C) The admission of West Germany into NATO as an equal member in 1955
D) The rapid and peaceful reunification of Germany at the end of the Cold War

D

Welch argues that the question of how to integrate Germany into a unified and peaceful Europe has been a challenge since 1871 and that the relative success at resolving this question is an important achievement of the movement for European unity after the Cold War. The reunification of Germany after the collapse of communism was accomplished peacefully and, although economically costly, resulted in improved prosperity both for Germany and other parts of Europe. This development supports Welch's argument that the movement for European unity has made significant progress toward resolving the German Question.

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French washing machine advertisem*nt, 1950s

Which of the following best explains why the advertiser attempted to portray the washing machine in the manner shown in the image?

A) It wished to convince French women that labor-saving devices would make their lives easier.
B) It wanted to convince French women that capitalism was a better economic system than communism.
C) It wished to convince French women that they no longer needed marriage or families in their lives.
D) It wanted to convince French men that they should help their wives with work in the household.

A

The advertiser's primary goal was to convince consumers of the utility of its products, in this case a Lincoln washing machine. Since women were the primary workers in the home, the advertisem*nt is pitched to convince that the washing machine will make their lives significantly easier and free them from "domestic slavery."

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French washing machine advertisem*nt, 1950s

Which of the following best explains why feminists of the time might have been skeptical of the message shown in the advertisem*nt?

A) Feminists sought more freedom to pursue careers and education outside of the home.
B) Feminists saw that despite new freedoms they were still expected to fulfill traditional domestic roles as well.
C) Feminists were largely more supportive of communism than capitalism as a means of gaining new freedoms.
D) Feminists were more interested in pursuing suffrage and political change than in changing social values.

B

The poster is an advertisem*nt geared toward making a washing machine attractive to women. French feminists would be skeptical of the poster because it assumes women would maintain their customary role in terms of housework. Even though the poster shows life being made easier for the woman in the poster, it does not assume anything except making traditional female roles easier to fulfill.

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French washing machine advertisem*nt, 1950s

Which of the following would most limit the image as a source of information regarding gender roles and social change in 1950s France?

A) Lincoln was an American company attempting to sell washing machines and other household products in France.
B) Washing machines and other mechanical appliances were becoming more popular in France and other Western European countries as a result of the postwar economic boom.
C) Advertisers tend to present an idealized representation of the effects of their products on the lives of consumers.
D) French students and intellectuals resisted what they saw as the harmful effects of consumerism on French

C

The woman depicted in the photo is seen relaxing in a hammock while the washing machine does the work of the laundry, but it does not account for other work that she may be required to do in the household. As an advertisem*nt it is showing an ideal situation to make the product more appealing, but it does not portray the full reality of women's labor in the household or outside it.

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Which of the following pieces of evidence did de Gaulle most directly use to describe his view of the nature of European culture (Charles de Gaulle, French President, press conference statement on European integration, 1962)?

A) The development of Esperanto and Volapük
B) The idea of the nation as a human and sentimental element
C) The literature of Dante, Goethe, and Chateaubriand
D) The use of myths, stories, and parades

C

De Gaulle uses Dante, Goethe, and Chateaubriand as prime examples of the achievements of nation-states, arguing that their unique national voices are what make them distinct. De Gaulle's main point is that each nation has its own distinct culture, and that these distinct cultures are what serve to collectively shape Europe.

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Which of the following best summarizes the evidence that de Gaulle most directly used to support his argument regarding the nature of the European Economic Community (Charles de Gaulle, French President, press conference statement on European integration, 1962)?

A) The fact that individual states provide the funding and staffing for the organization
B) The ability of the EEC to act independently of its member states
C) The individual character of the member nations
D) The stateless character of the great authors and artists of Europe

A

It is clear that de Gaulle feels that the EEC would not be able to function without the participation of the European states and therefore the states are what is important in Europe. Mentioning the individual contribution of nations to sending funding and staffing to the organization indicates that de Gaulle believes that Europe can only be successful as a Europe of states and not as a combined entity throughout the continent.

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Which of the following pieces of evidence did de Gaulle most directly use to support his skepticism regarding the EEC's ability to unify Europe politically (Charles de Gaulle, French President, press conference statement on European integration, 1962)?

A) The efficiency of the EEC's bureaucracy
B) The idea only existing in myths, stories, and parades
C) The great authors being both European and representatives of their nations
D) The exclusion of other nations from the EEC

B

De Gaulle believes that the concept of a unified European nation only exists in myths, stories, or parades. His argument is that there can be a European community of nations that cooperates economically, but that the nation-states must still remain distinct entities.

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The concerns about immigration at the time of Thatcher's interview were most strongly reinforced by which of the following economic developments (Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister, television interview, 1978)?

A) The increasing dependence of the world economy on the United States financial system in the postwar period
B) The admission of Britain into the European Economic Community in 1973
C) The increased burden of defense spending on Western European state budgets during the Cold War
D) The downturn resulting from the oil shock and declining industry in the 1970s

D

Because the economy in Great Britain suffered from the oil shock and resulting decline in industry in the 1970s, many British citizens feared that an increase in immigration would put an even greater strain on the economy. Although Thatcher casts the concerns about immigration in cultural terms, economic anxiety was a significant factor as well.

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The concerns about immigration expressed by Thatcher in the passage were most consistent with which of the following positions held by many British conservatives (Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister, television interview, 1978)?

A) Prioritizing good relations with the United States as the most important foreign policy goal
B) Resistance to full economic and political integration with Europe
C) Creation of a strong defensive capability to deter communist aggression
D) Skepticism about the value of the welfare state

B

Thatcher and other members of the Conservative Party were wary of the program of European economic and political integration being carried out at the time through the creation of the European Economic Community and other efforts. Similar to their concerns about immigration from outside Europe, they feared that European integration would lead to open immigration, the loss of British sovereignty, and the erosion of Britain's unique political culture.

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Which of the following best explains why West Germany experienced issues similar to those discussed in the passage during the 1970s (Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister, television interview, 1978)?

A) Decolonization created a large number of migrants into West Germany.
B) Cold War tensions led to large numbers of refugees from the Eastern bloc migrating into West Germany.
C) Migrants from Turkey and other countries had come to West Germany in large numbers as temporary laborers.
D) West German emigration to other countries controls was extremely low in the 1970s.

C

Migrants from Turkey and other less developed regions had come to Germany in large numbers during the 1960s in order to find job opportunities. Though in theory they were temporary guest workers, many West Germans feared that they would stay, become permanent residents, and alter the ethnic and cultural makeup of the country. The economic downturn of the 1970s (which affected West Germany as well as Great Britain) exacerbated these concerns.

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The following question refers to the topic of technology in the later twentieth century.

Which of the following best explains why the science of eugenics and genetic engineering caused significant debates in Europe in the latter half of the twentieth century?

A) The baby boom after the Second World War raised concerns about overpopulation.
B) The possibility of selecting desired characteristics was similar to Nazi racial goals.
C) The Cold War led to concerns about the military uses of eugenics.
D) The feminist movement opposed developments that might restrict the freedom of women to make their own reproductive choices.

B

The eugenics movement, which sought to prevent the spread of human genetic traits deemed undesirable, was largely discredited after the Second World War in large part because its goals and beliefs seemed close to those held by Nazi racial theorists. After the Second World War, the development of a more detailed understanding of human heredity and the beginning of genetic engineering, particularly the possibility of creating humans with superior abilities, raised many of the same concerns.

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The following question refers to the topic of technology in the later twentieth century.

Which of the following best explains why the development of birth control technologies led to moral debates in postwar European society?

A) Birth control was largely only available in Western Europe during the Cold War.
B) Increasing immigration within Europe changed the population makeup of many European countries.
C) Many Europeans believed that control over reproduction was incompatible with their religious traditions.
D) Military leaders feared that the widespread use of birth control would lead to a decline in the number of recruits available for European armies.

C

Although various methods of birth control became widely available in Europe after the Second World War, many religious people strongly objected to their use. The debate over birth control was often carried out in moral terms.

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The following question refers to the topic of technology in the later twentieth century.

Which of the following best explains why the invention of the birth control pill after the Second World War was seen as a positive development by many European feminists?

A) It afforded women the opportunity to make more choices regarding careers, family, and education.
B) It allowed women to challenge the predominant ideologies of consumer capitalism and communism.
C) It gave women the opportunity to lessen their impact on the natural environment by limiting the size of their families.
D) It reinforced the importance of the traditional nuclear family in European life.

A

The oral contraceptive pill offered women a reliable and convenient form of birth control. Many feminists who believed that women should have more freedom to choose the course of their own lives welcomed the advent of the pill because it offered an important means of increasing that freedom.

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Source 1: Debate in the French parliament about Coca-Cola® in Paris, 1950
Source 2: Cutmaster GB, German hip-hop DJ, discussing events in Frankfurt [GIs/Americans in Germany] in the 1980s, interview conducted in 2002

Taken together, the two sources best provide evidence for which of the following postwar developments in Europe?

A) The Cold War created cultural and political divisions between Eastern and Western Europe.
B) The increasing immigration into Europe from other countries generated debates about cultural change.
C) The American political and military presence in Europe led to greater cultural influence.
D) The growth of new cultural values led many European artists and thinkers to criticize bourgeois values.

C

The presence of American soldiers in Western European countries as part of the NATO defense agreements, along with greater economic ties and advances in communications and transportation, led to greater imports of American culture and consumer goods.

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Source 1: Debate in the French parliament about Coca-Cola® in Paris, 1950

Source 1 is best understood as an early example of which of the following developments in Western Europe in the second half of the twentieth century?

A) The development of new communication and transportation technologies led to the proliferation of new ideas.
B) The effects of the Second World War gave rise to postmodernism and existentialism, particularly in France.
C) The fear of communism led to cultural conformity in support of democracy and capitalism in much of Western Europe.
D) The greater influence of the United States in Europe generated opposition, as some Europeans feared the impact of consumerism and globalization.

D

The greater American presence in Western Europe after the Second World War led to more cultural and economic influence, which as shown in Source 1, generated opposition from Europeans who feared the loss of their own cultural values in the face of American consumerism.

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Source 2: Cutmaster GB, German hip-hop DJ, discussing events in Frankfurt [GIs/Americans in Germany] in the 1980s, interview conducted in 2002

Source 2 is best understood as evidence of which of the following developments in Western Europe in the second half of the twentieth century?

A) Imports of American culture in some cases generated enthusiasm, particularly among younger people and cultural minorities.
B) American and NATO military presence in West Germany during the Cold War generated resistance from the local population.
C) Immigration by guest workers into West Germany generated a significant shift in German culture.
D) Popular culture and consumerism were significant factors in undermining the communist governments in Eastern Europe.

A

The importation of American culture in some cases generated enthusiasm in the populace of Western European countries. Source 2 explains that when hip-hop came to Germany in the 1980s, it was the American soldiers stationed in West Germany that initially supported it, and then later some German citizens, such as Cutmaster, embraced hip-hop.

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37

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FERTILITY RATE, SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, 1960 TO 2000
Source: Eurostat https://ec.europa.eu/

Fertility rate is a projection of the average number of children born to each woman in her lifetime.

Which of the following best describes the overall trend on the table?

A) Fertility rates remained consistent across Europe from 1960 to 2000.
B) Fertility rates declined in Eastern and Southern Europe, but remained steady in Western Europe from 1960 to 2000.
C) Fertility rates declined across Europe from 1960 to 2000.
D) Fertility rates increased in Southern Europe, but declined in Western and Eastern Europe from 1960 to 2000.

C

As shown in the table, fertility rates declined across Europe from 1960 to 2000 with only occasional isolated increases in certain countries.

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38

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FERTILITY RATE, SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, 1960 TO 2000
Source: Eurostat https://ec.europa.eu/

Fertility rate is a projection of the average number of children born to each woman in her lifetime.

Which of the following best describes the trend in Western Europe from 1960 to 2000?

A) Fertility rates dropped steadily, with a slight rebound from 1990 to 2000.
B) Fertility rates remained steady from 1960 to 1980, then dropped sharply.
C) Fertility rates increased slightly from 1960 to 1990, then dropped sharply.
D) Fertility rates declined steadily throughout the period 1960 to 2000.

A

The table shows that fertility rates in Western Europe declined from 1960 to 1990 and rebounded slightly by the year 2000. The rate in 2000 had not risen to the same rate as 1960, but the chart does show a small increase in the rate in the last decade of the twentieth century.

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39

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FERTILITY RATE, SELECTED EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, 1960 TO 2000
Source: Eurostat https://ec.europa.eu/

Fertility rate is a projection of the average number of children born to each woman in her lifetime.

Which of the following best describes the trend in Eastern Europe from 1960 to 2000?

A) Fertility rates dropped steadily from 1960 to 2000
B) Fertility rates dropped slightly between 1960 and 1990, then dropped sharply from 1990 to 2000
C) Fertility rates declined from 1960 to 1980, then increased from 1980 to 2000
D) Fertility rates showed little change over the period 1960 to 2000

B

The table shows a gradual decline in Eastern European fertility rates from 1960 to 1990 and a much sharper decline from 1990 to 2000. In both countries, fertility rates dropped by a larger amount in the ten years from 1990 to 2000, than they did in the thirty years from 1960 to 1990.

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